How much does it cost to a replace a roof?
There is no simple answer to how much the bottom line will be for your roofing project. A bid from your contractor should be based on square footage, the pitch of roof, accessibility, type of roofing material needed, 1- or 2-story home, removal of old roof (if necessary), roof permit and city license, and labor. The average cost to replace a roof runs from approximately $2.000.00 to $12,000.00 depending on the size of the roof and the quality of the workmanship and materials.


Can I replace missing and damaged tiles or shingles without calling a roofing contractor?
It is always recommended that you use a professional, but in case of an emergency, it is possible for you to replace a shingle or broken tile yourself.

  • Composition shingles:
    For composition shingles, roofing cement can be used to repair torn or curled shingles. Stabilize repaired shingles with nails or a heavy board until the cement has dried.

    To replace a composition shingle, carefully lift the shingle above the missing shingle, then trim and place the new shingle underneath so that it doesn't catch on any edges (it may be necessary to remove excess staples or nails). Carefully nail the new shingle into place.
  • Wood shingles or shakes:
    For wood shingles, repairs are best done with an aluminum piece that can be slid under the shingle. This should protect the exposed area, while not being visible from below.

    To replace a wood shingle requires a special tool, a shingle ripper, to slip under the shingle and hook and cut the nail. The nail can also be cut with a hacksaw, but is difficult to do. Slip the new shingle into position, but leave it ? inch longer than the other shingles. Then nail it into place right below the end of the overlapping shingle above. Finally, with a block of wood against the shingle butt, drive it up the last ? inch to bend the nails under the shingle above.
  • Tiles:
    To replace a tile, remove all of the broken pieces, then gently lift the tiles and slide the new tile into place until it hooks over the batten.

How can I choose the right roofing contractor?
Be sure to get detailed quotes from at least two but preferably three different contractors. Once you have three quotes sit down and compare the estimates paying special attention to the materials used and the labor costs. Just as important be sure to talk to people who have previously used these contractors. Ask if they had any complaints, if they cleaned up nicely, if they finished on time, kept to the contract etc. Any roofing business relies on referrals, so find out what you can, and choose what suits you best.

Can my roof be repaired?
It's usually best to have an experienced roofer inspect your roof when deciding whether to repair or replace your roof. However, you (and the contractor) should do an inside roof inspection and an outside inspection as well. Look for signs that the roof is failing such as stains on the ceiling, paint that is peeling, shingles that are missing in several locations, etc? You also need to take into consideration the age of the roof. Are your ?20 year? asphalt shingles more than 15 years old or were they installed just a few years ago. If the roof is well within it's life span and you aren't seeing other warning signs chances are good you can simply repair and/or replace those shingles that are causing a problem.

How long does it take to replace a roof?
Replacing a roof, whether on a commercial or residential building, is a labor-intensive project and, depending on the type of roof, could take anywhere from a few days to 2 or more weeks. The time involved is substantially affected by the weather, as well. Wind, snow, rain, or even just the threat of one of these and will slow the process considerably. Also see what to expect form roof project.

For built-up roofs, removing and replacing the roof will probably proceed at a rate of approximately 1,500 square feet per day. For single-ply roofs, the rate is closer to 2,000 to 4,000 square feet per day. Careful planning and close project management can reduce some of the delays caused by bad weather.

Should I have my chimney looked at before I have roof work done?
If the chimney requires any maintenance or repair, the best time to work on it is before a new roof is installed. Coordinate the chimney mason with the roofing contractor and yourself to make sure all chimney flashing and chimney repairs are completed properly before the new roof is installed.


Do I need a permit to have my roof replaced?
You should check with your local city government but almost assuredly you will. Pricing for a permit will vary from area to area. Some will be a flat fee whereas others may be based on the size or value of the project. If you are having the roof replaced by a contractor they will typically take care of the permit for you but it is important to confirm that with the company. If they do not take care of the permit and/or you are replacing the roof yourself you will need to talk to city development services.


Do my solar panels have to be removed to install the new roof?
Although there are rare exceptions to the rule, most solar panels are either bolted to or mounted on the existing roofing material and must be removed before a new roof can be installed. Because solar panels are charged using a type of antifreeze, they will have to be removed and reinstalled by a licensed plumber who can insure that the job is accomplished properly.

How many homes are topped by asphalt shingles? Why?
Asphalt shingles are the leading choice for residential roofing in the United States because they provide quality, durability, versatility and economy. Four out of five homes are roofed with asphalt shingles.

Asphalt shingles offer consumers the broadest array of colors, shapes, and textures available. With an enormous range of styles, asphalt shingles can match almost every type of architectural design and achieve virtually any desired effect – and do it affordably.


What are some of the benefits of asphalt shingles?
Product Performance – Asphalt shingles perform well in extreme temperatures and in areas where wind, water, and ice are prevalent.
Affordability – The efficient, high-volume production and relatively low application cost of asphalt shingles provide consumers with an overall value that’s tough for other roofing materials to match, especially in terms of comparable life expectancy.
Low Maintenance – Asphalt shingles, when properly chosen and applied, require little or no regular upkeep, and are easily repaired if damaged.
Ease of Application Asphalt shingles are considered to be the easiest of all standard roofing materials to apply. In addition, the flexibility and strength of asphalt shingles supports their application on a wide variety of roof designs.
Fire and Wind Resistance – Asphalt shingles are manufactured to resist external fire and flammability standards, and carry Class A, B or C fire ratings, with Class A providing the greatest fire resistance. These fire ratings are defined by nationally recognized standards and tested by independent testing agencies. In addition, many asphalt shingles carrying a "wind resistance" label indicate that they have been manufactured and tested to demonstrate acceptable resistance in high-wind locations."

How are asphalt shingles made?
In the United States, asphalt shingles are categorized as either organic-based or fiberglass-based. Organic-based asphalt shingles are manufactured with a base (also termed mat or substrate) made of various cellulose fibers, such as recycled waste paper and wood fibers. This organic base is then saturated with a specially formulated asphalt coating and surfaced with weather resistant mineral granules. Fiberglass-based asphalt shingles are manufactured with mat composed entirely of glass fibers of varying lengths and orientations. This fiberglass base is then surfaced with a specially-formulated asphalt coating, followed by weather-resistant mineral granules.

What are the different types of asphalt shingles?
Strip Shingles – these asphalt shingles are approximately three times as long as they are wide. Manufactured in both standard and metric dimensions, strip shingles are distinguished by the number of cutouts or tabs that they have. The most common type of strip shingle is the "three-tab" shingle. Different textural and lighting/shadowing effects can be achieved with strip shingles depending on the number, shape and alignment of the cutouts.
Laminated Shingles – these special shingles contain more than one layer of tabs to create extra thickness. They are also referred to as three-dimensional or architectural shingles because they create visual depth on a roof and impart a custom look. Laminated shingles continue to be a favorite among builders, roofing contractors and homebuyers.
Interlocking Shingles – as the name suggests, interlocking asphalt shingles are individual shingles that mechanically fasten to each other, and are used to provide greater wind resistance. They come in various shapes and sizes providing a wide range of design possibilities.
Large Format Shingles – generally rectangular or hexagonal in shape, these shingles do not utilize cutouts or tabs
.

How do I determine if a roof should be replaced?
Sooner or later, every roof needs to be replaced, usually due to the long-term effects of weathering. If a residential roof is more than 20 years old, it is a prime candidate for reroofing. To determine if you need a new roof:

  • On the ground, walk around your home with binoculars and inspect your roof for cracked, curled or missing shingles, as well as any excessive loss of the protective mineral granules. DO NOT CLIMB ON THE ROOF; walking on the roof is dangerous and can damage your roof.
  • In your attic, take a flashlight and look at the underside of the roof deck and rafters for any stains or wet spots indicating water leaks.

Asphalt shingles can often be applied directly over existing roofs without the necessity of tearing off the old roof. However, new shingles can not be properly applied over hard or brittle materials, uneven surfaces for nailing or roof decks with warped, rotted or unsound support that should first be replaced or repaired.
Some local ordinances forbid reroofing over two or more layers of shingles. If a home already has been shingled several times, it is important to first determine if the roof deck can support another layer of shingles before undertaking any re-roofing project.

What are some steep-slope roofing terms?
Architectural Shingles: (See Laminated Shingles)
Asphalt: A bituminous waterproofing agent applied to roofing materials during manufacture.
Deck: The structural surface to which the roofing or waterproofing system (including insulation) is applied.
Flashing: Pieces of metal or roll roofing used to prevent seepage of water into a building around any intersection or projection in a roof, such as vent pipes, chimneys, adjoining walls, dormers and valleys.
Granules: Ceramic-coated colored crushed rock that is applied to the exposed surface of asphalt roofing products.
Hip: The inclined external angle formed by the intersection of two sloping roof planes. Runs from the ridge to the eaves.
Incline: The slope of a roof expressed either in percent or in the number of vertical units of rise per horizontal unit of run. Also referred to as slope.
Interlocking Shingles: Individual shingles that fasten together mechanically and provide greater wind resistance.
Laminated Shingles: These shingles have more than one layer of tabs to create extra thickness. They are often referred to as three-dimensional or architectural shingles because they create visual depth on a roof and impart a custom look.
Large Format Shingles: Generally rectangular or hexagonal in shape, these shingles do not have cutouts or tabs.
Membrane: A roof covering or waterproofing layer whose primary function is the exclusion of water.
Re-covering: The process of covering an existing roofing system with a new roofing system.
Re-roofing: The practice of removing an existing roofing system and replacing it with a new roofing system.
Ridge: The uppermost, horizontal external angle formed by the intersection of two sloping roof planes.
Roll Roofing: Asphalt roofing products manufactured in roll form, either smooth- or mineral-surfaced.
Saturated Felt: An asphalt-impregnated felt used as an underlayment between the deck and the roofing material.
Self-Adhered Eave and Flashing Membrane: A self-adhering water-proofing shingle underlayment designed to protect against water infiltration due to ice dams or wind driven rain.
Strip Shingles: Manufactured in both standard and metric dimensions, these asphalt shingles are approximately three times as long as they are wide, and are distinguished by the number of cutouts or tabs that they have. The most common are three tab.
Square: A unit of roof measure covering 100 square feet.
Thermal Insulation: A material applied to reduce the flow of heat.
Three-Dimensional Shingles: (See Laminated Shingles)
Underlayment: Asphalt saturated felt used beneath roofing to provide additional protection for the deck.
Valley: The internal angle formed by the intersection of two sloping roof planes.
Vapor Retarder: A material designed to impede the passage of water vapor into the roofing system.

What are some of the advantages of BUR (Built-Up Roofing)?
Built-up roofing systems have had a long-standing popularity, due in large part to the success and proven reliability of BUR. The stock of 20, 30 and 40-year-old BUR roofs still in excellent condition attests to this fact. Specifically, BUR roofs offer:

  • Multi-Layer Protection – the multiple layers of bitumen and bitumen saturated “felts” make a watertight barrier capable of providing many years of reliable protection from the elements.
  • Thermal Performance – Built-up roofing systems exhibit exceptional resistance to the conduction of heat between the exterior and interior of a building, resulting in noticeable reductions in heating and cooling costs.
  • Fire and Uplift Resistance – Built-up roofing systems are tested through Factory Mutual Research Corporation to meet very strict fire resistance requirements and ensure adequate uplift resistance under extreme wind conditions.
  • Economy – Compared to other high performance commercial roofing systems, built-up roofing is one of the best investments on the market due to its competitive cost per year of expected service life.

What are some low-slope roofing terms?
APP (Atactic Polypropylene): A modifier of asphalt (see modified bitumen roof membrane) that increases the UV resistance of the bitumen as well as its flexibility at low temperatures and improves its flow resistance at high temperatures.
Asphalt: A bituminous waterproofing agent applied to roofing materials during manufacture.
Built-Up Roof (BUR): A flat or low-sloped roof consisting of multiple layers of asphalt and ply sheets.
Base Sheet: A saturated or coated felt installed as the first ply in some multi-ply modified bitumen roofing assemblies.
Bitumen: (1) a class of amorphous, black or dark colored (solid, semi-solid or viscous) cementitious substances, natural or manufactured, composed principally of high molecular weight hydrocarbons and found in asphalts, tars, pitches and asphaltines; (2) a generic term used to denote any material composed principally of bitumen.
Bituminous: Containing or treated with bitumen.
Cap Sheet: A granule-surfaced coated sheet used as the top ply of a modified bitumen roof membrane.
Coated Sheet or Felt: (1) an asphalt felt that has been coated on both sides with harder, more viscous asphalt; (2) a glass fiber felt that has been simultaneously impregnated and coated with asphalt or coal tar on both sides.
Cold-Applied Roofing: A continuous roof membrane, consisting of plies of felts, mats or fabrics that are laminated on a roof with alternate layers of cold-applied roof adhesive and surfaced with a cold-applied coating.
Deck: The structural surface to which the roofing or waterproofing system (including insulation) is applied.
Felt: A flexible sheet manufactured by the interlocking of fibers through a combination of mechanical work, moisture, and heat. Felts are manufactured principally from vegetable fibers (organic felts), glass fibers (glass fiber felts), or polyester fibers (polyester felts); other fibers may be present in each type.
Fiberglass Mat: An asphalt roofing base material manufactured from glass fibers.
Flashing: Pieces of metal or roll roofing used to prevent seepage of water into a building around any intersection or projection in a roof, such as vent pipes, chimneys, adjoining walls, dormers and valleys.
Granules: Ceramic-coated colored crushed rock that is applied to the exposed surface of asphalt roofing products.
Incline: The slope of a roof expressed either in percent or in the number of vertical units of rise per horizontal unit of run. Also referred to as slope.
Low-Fuming Asphalt: An asphalt that contains a small amount of special
polymer that, when heated, floats to the surface, creating a skim layer on
the asphalt in the kettle that traps most of the fumes.
Membrane: A roof covering or waterproofing layer whose primary function is the exclusion of water.
Modified Bitumen Roof Membrane: A continuous, semi-flexible roof membrane assembly consisting of plies of saturated felts, coated felts, fabrics or mats between which alternate layers of bitumen are applied, either surfaced or unsurfaced.
Organic Felt: An asphalt roofing base material manufactured from cellulose fibers.
Re-covering: The process of covering an existing roofing system with a new roofing system.
Re-roofing: The practice of removing an existing roofing system and replacing it with a new roofing system.
Roll Roofing: Asphalt roofing products manufactured in roll form, either smooth- or mineral-surfaced.
Saturated Felt: An asphalt-impregnated felt used as an underlayment between the deck and the roofing material.
SBS (Styrene-Butadiene-Styrene): A modifier of asphalt (see modified bitumen roof membrane) that enhances the bitumen’s ability to resist the effects of aging the weather.
Self-Adhering Membrane: A membrane that can adhere to a substrate without the use of an additional adhesive. The undersurface of a self-adhering membrane is protected by a release paper or film, which prevents the membrane from bonding to itself during shipping and handling. These membranes can be base sheets, ply sheets, cap sheets or underlayments.
Smooth-Surfaced Roof: A roof membrane surfaced with a layer of hot-mopped asphalt, cold-applied asphalt-clay emulsion, cold-applied asphalt cutbacks, elastomeric coating, or sometimes with an unmopped, inorganic felt.
Square: A unit of roof measure covering 100 square feet.
Thermal Insulation: A material applied to reduce the flow of heat.
Underlayment: Asphalt saturated felt used beneath roofing to provide additional protection for the deck.
Vapor Retarder: A material designed to impede the passage of water vapor into the roofing system.

 


 

 
 
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